Client

The Dapr client package allows you to interact with other Dapr applications from a Java application.

Prerequisites

Complete initial setup and import the Java SDK into your project

Initializing the client

You can initialize a Dapr client as so:

DaprClient client = new DaprClientBuilder().build()

This will connect to the default Dapr gRPC endpoint localhost:50001.

Environment variables:

Dapr Sidecar Endpoints

You can use the standardized DAPR_GRPC_ENDPOINT and DAPR_HTTP_ENDPOINT environment variables to specify a different gRPC or HTTP endpoint. When these variables are set, the client will automatically use them to connect to the Dapr sidecar.

The legacy environment variables DAPR_HTTP_PORT and DAPR_GRPC_PORT are still supported, but DAPR_GRPC_ENDPOINT and DAPR_HTTP_ENDPOINT take precedence.

Dapr API Token

If your Dapr instance is configured to require the DAPR_API_TOKEN environment variable, you can set it in the environment and the client will use it automatically.
You can read more about Dapr API token authentication here.

Building blocks

The Java SDK allows you to interface with all of the Dapr building blocks.

Invoke a service

import io.dapr.client.DaprClient;
import io.dapr.client.DaprClientBuilder;

try (DaprClient client = (new DaprClientBuilder()).build()) {
  // invoke a 'GET' method (HTTP) skipping serialization: \say with a Mono<byte[]> return type
  // for gRPC set HttpExtension.NONE parameters below
  response = client.invokeMethod(SERVICE_TO_INVOKE, METHOD_TO_INVOKE, "{\"name\":\"World!\"}", HttpExtension.GET, byte[].class).block();

  // invoke a 'POST' method (HTTP) skipping serialization: to \say with a Mono<byte[]> return type     
  response = client.invokeMethod(SERVICE_TO_INVOKE, METHOD_TO_INVOKE, "{\"id\":\"100\", \"FirstName\":\"Value\", \"LastName\":\"Value\"}", HttpExtension.POST, byte[].class).block();

  System.out.println(new String(response));

  // invoke a 'POST' method (HTTP) with serialization: \employees with a Mono<Employee> return type      
  Employee newEmployee = new Employee("Nigel", "Guitarist");
  Employee employeeResponse = client.invokeMethod(SERVICE_TO_INVOKE, "employees", newEmployee, HttpExtension.POST, Employee.class).block();
}

Save & get application state

import io.dapr.client.DaprClient;
import io.dapr.client.DaprClientBuilder;
import io.dapr.client.domain.State;
import reactor.core.publisher.Mono;

try (DaprClient client = (new DaprClientBuilder()).build()) {
  // Save state
  client.saveState(STATE_STORE_NAME, FIRST_KEY_NAME, myClass).block();

  // Get state
  State<MyClass> retrievedMessage = client.getState(STATE_STORE_NAME, FIRST_KEY_NAME, MyClass.class).block();

  // Delete state
  client.deleteState(STATE_STORE_NAME, FIRST_KEY_NAME).block();
}

Publish & subscribe to messages

Publish messages
import io.dapr.client.DaprClient;
import io.dapr.client.DaprClientBuilder;
import io.dapr.client.domain.Metadata;
import static java.util.Collections.singletonMap;

try (DaprClient client = (new DaprClientBuilder()).build()) {
  client.publishEvent(PUBSUB_NAME, TOPIC_NAME, message, singletonMap(Metadata.TTL_IN_SECONDS, MESSAGE_TTL_IN_SECONDS)).block();
}
Subscribe to messages
import com.fasterxml.jackson.databind.ObjectMapper;
import io.dapr.Topic;
import io.dapr.client.domain.BulkSubscribeAppResponse;
import io.dapr.client.domain.BulkSubscribeAppResponseEntry;
import io.dapr.client.domain.BulkSubscribeAppResponseStatus;
import io.dapr.client.domain.BulkSubscribeMessage;
import io.dapr.client.domain.BulkSubscribeMessageEntry;
import io.dapr.client.domain.CloudEvent;
import io.dapr.springboot.annotations.BulkSubscribe;
import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.PostMapping;
import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.RequestBody;
import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.RestController;
import reactor.core.publisher.Mono;

@RestController
public class SubscriberController {

  private static final ObjectMapper OBJECT_MAPPER = new ObjectMapper();

  @Topic(name = "testingtopic", pubsubName = "${myAppProperty:messagebus}")
  @PostMapping(path = "/testingtopic")
  public Mono<Void> handleMessage(@RequestBody(required = false) CloudEvent<?> cloudEvent) {
    return Mono.fromRunnable(() -> {
      try {
        System.out.println("Subscriber got: " + cloudEvent.getData());
        System.out.println("Subscriber got: " + OBJECT_MAPPER.writeValueAsString(cloudEvent));
      } catch (Exception e) {
        throw new RuntimeException(e);
      }
    });
  }

  @Topic(name = "testingtopic", pubsubName = "${myAppProperty:messagebus}",
          rule = @Rule(match = "event.type == 'myevent.v2'", priority = 1))
  @PostMapping(path = "/testingtopicV2")
  public Mono<Void> handleMessageV2(@RequestBody(required = false) CloudEvent envelope) {
    return Mono.fromRunnable(() -> {
      try {
        System.out.println("Subscriber got: " + cloudEvent.getData());
        System.out.println("Subscriber got: " + OBJECT_MAPPER.writeValueAsString(cloudEvent));
      } catch (Exception e) {
        throw new RuntimeException(e);
      }
    });
  }

  @BulkSubscribe()
  @Topic(name = "testingtopicbulk", pubsubName = "${myAppProperty:messagebus}")
  @PostMapping(path = "/testingtopicbulk")
  public Mono<BulkSubscribeAppResponse> handleBulkMessage(
          @RequestBody(required = false) BulkSubscribeMessage<CloudEvent<String>> bulkMessage) {
    return Mono.fromCallable(() -> {
      if (bulkMessage.getEntries().size() == 0) {
        return new BulkSubscribeAppResponse(new ArrayList<BulkSubscribeAppResponseEntry>());
      }

      System.out.println("Bulk Subscriber received " + bulkMessage.getEntries().size() + " messages.");

      List<BulkSubscribeAppResponseEntry> entries = new ArrayList<BulkSubscribeAppResponseEntry>();
      for (BulkSubscribeMessageEntry<?> entry : bulkMessage.getEntries()) {
        try {
          System.out.printf("Bulk Subscriber message has entry ID: %s\n", entry.getEntryId());
          CloudEvent<?> cloudEvent = (CloudEvent<?>) entry.getEvent();
          System.out.printf("Bulk Subscriber got: %s\n", cloudEvent.getData());
          entries.add(new BulkSubscribeAppResponseEntry(entry.getEntryId(), BulkSubscribeAppResponseStatus.SUCCESS));
        } catch (Exception e) {
          e.printStackTrace();
          entries.add(new BulkSubscribeAppResponseEntry(entry.getEntryId(), BulkSubscribeAppResponseStatus.RETRY));
        }
      }
      return new BulkSubscribeAppResponse(entries);
    });
  }
}
Bulk Publish Messages

Note: API is in Alpha stage

import io.dapr.client.DaprClientBuilder;
import io.dapr.client.DaprPreviewClient;
import io.dapr.client.domain.BulkPublishResponse;
import io.dapr.client.domain.BulkPublishResponseFailedEntry;
import java.util.ArrayList;
import java.util.List;
class Solution {
  public void publishMessages() {
    try (DaprPreviewClient client = (new DaprClientBuilder()).buildPreviewClient()) {
      // Create a list of messages to publish
      List<String> messages = new ArrayList<>();
      for (int i = 0; i < NUM_MESSAGES; i++) {
        String message = String.format("This is message #%d", i);
        messages.add(message);
        System.out.println("Going to publish message : " + message);
      }

      // Publish list of messages using the bulk publish API
      BulkPublishResponse<String> res = client.publishEvents(PUBSUB_NAME, TOPIC_NAME, "text/plain", messages).block()
    }
  }
}

Interact with output bindings

import io.dapr.client.DaprClient;
import io.dapr.client.DaprClientBuilder;

try (DaprClient client = (new DaprClientBuilder()).build()) {
  // sending a class with message; BINDING_OPERATION="create"
  client.invokeBinding(BINDING_NAME, BINDING_OPERATION, myClass).block();

  // sending a plain string
  client.invokeBinding(BINDING_NAME, BINDING_OPERATION, message).block();
}

Interact with input bindings

import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.*;
import org.slf4j.Logger;
import org.slf4j.LoggerFactory;

@RestController
@RequestMapping("/")
public class myClass {
    private static final Logger log = LoggerFactory.getLogger(myClass);
        @PostMapping(path = "/checkout")
        public Mono<String> getCheckout(@RequestBody(required = false) byte[] body) {
            return Mono.fromRunnable(() ->
                    log.info("Received Message: " + new String(body)));
        }
}

Retrieve secrets

import com.fasterxml.jackson.databind.ObjectMapper;
import io.dapr.client.DaprClient;
import io.dapr.client.DaprClientBuilder;
import java.util.Map;

try (DaprClient client = (new DaprClientBuilder()).build()) {
  Map<String, String> secret = client.getSecret(SECRET_STORE_NAME, secretKey).block();
  System.out.println(JSON_SERIALIZER.writeValueAsString(secret));
}

Actors

An actor is an isolated, independent unit of compute and state with single-threaded execution. Dapr provides an actor implementation based on the Virtual Actor pattern, which provides a single-threaded programming model and where actors are garbage collected when not in use. With Dapr’s implementaiton, you write your Dapr actors according to the Actor model, and Dapr leverages the scalability and reliability that the underlying platform provides.

import io.dapr.actors.ActorMethod;
import io.dapr.actors.ActorType;
import reactor.core.publisher.Mono;

@ActorType(name = "DemoActor")
public interface DemoActor {

  void registerReminder();

  @ActorMethod(name = "echo_message")
  String say(String something);

  void clock(String message);

  @ActorMethod(returns = Integer.class)
  Mono<Integer> incrementAndGet(int delta);
}

Get & Subscribe to application configurations

Note this is a preview API and thus will only be accessible via the DaprPreviewClient interface and not the normal DaprClient interface

import io.dapr.client.DaprClientBuilder;
import io.dapr.client.DaprPreviewClient;
import io.dapr.client.domain.ConfigurationItem;
import io.dapr.client.domain.GetConfigurationRequest;
import io.dapr.client.domain.SubscribeConfigurationRequest;
import reactor.core.publisher.Flux;
import reactor.core.publisher.Mono;

try (DaprPreviewClient client = (new DaprClientBuilder()).buildPreviewClient()) {
  // Get configuration for a single key
  Mono<ConfigurationItem> item = client.getConfiguration(CONFIG_STORE_NAME, CONFIG_KEY).block();

  // Get configurations for multiple keys
  Mono<Map<String, ConfigurationItem>> items =
          client.getConfiguration(CONFIG_STORE_NAME, CONFIG_KEY_1, CONFIG_KEY_2);

  // Subscribe to configuration changes
  Flux<SubscribeConfigurationResponse> outFlux = client.subscribeConfiguration(CONFIG_STORE_NAME, CONFIG_KEY_1, CONFIG_KEY_2);
  outFlux.subscribe(configItems -> configItems.forEach(...));

  // Unsubscribe from configuration changes
  Mono<UnsubscribeConfigurationResponse> unsubscribe = client.unsubscribeConfiguration(SUBSCRIPTION_ID, CONFIG_STORE_NAME)
}

Query saved state

Note this is a preview API and thus will only be accessible via the DaprPreviewClient interface and not the normal DaprClient interface

import io.dapr.client.DaprClient;
import io.dapr.client.DaprClientBuilder;
import io.dapr.client.DaprPreviewClient;
import io.dapr.client.domain.QueryStateItem;
import io.dapr.client.domain.QueryStateRequest;
import io.dapr.client.domain.QueryStateResponse;
import io.dapr.client.domain.query.Query;
import io.dapr.client.domain.query.Sorting;
import io.dapr.client.domain.query.filters.EqFilter;

try (DaprClient client = builder.build(); DaprPreviewClient previewClient = builder.buildPreviewClient()) {
        String searchVal = args.length == 0 ? "searchValue" : args[0];
        
        // Create JSON data
        Listing first = new Listing();
        first.setPropertyType("apartment");
        first.setId("1000");
        ...
        Listing second = new Listing();
        second.setPropertyType("row-house");
        second.setId("1002");
        ...
        Listing third = new Listing();
        third.setPropertyType("apartment");
        third.setId("1003");
        ...
        Listing fourth = new Listing();
        fourth.setPropertyType("apartment");
        fourth.setId("1001");
        ...
        Map<String, String> meta = new HashMap<>();
        meta.put("contentType", "application/json");

        // Save state
        SaveStateRequest request = new SaveStateRequest(STATE_STORE_NAME).setStates(
          new State<>("1", first, null, meta, null),
          new State<>("2", second, null, meta, null),
          new State<>("3", third, null, meta, null),
          new State<>("4", fourth, null, meta, null)
        );
        client.saveBulkState(request).block();
        
        
        // Create query and query state request

        Query query = new Query()
          .setFilter(new EqFilter<>("propertyType", "apartment"))
          .setSort(Arrays.asList(new Sorting("id", Sorting.Order.DESC)));
        QueryStateRequest request = new QueryStateRequest(STATE_STORE_NAME)
          .setQuery(query);

        // Use preview client to call query state API
        QueryStateResponse<MyData> result = previewClient.queryState(request, MyData.class).block();
        
        // View Query state response 
        System.out.println("Found " + result.getResults().size() + " items.");
        for (QueryStateItem<Listing> item : result.getResults()) {
          System.out.println("Key: " + item.getKey());
          System.out.println("Data: " + item.getValue());
        }
}

Distributed lock

package io.dapr.examples.lock.grpc;

import io.dapr.client.DaprClientBuilder;
import io.dapr.client.DaprPreviewClient;
import io.dapr.client.domain.LockRequest;
import io.dapr.client.domain.UnlockRequest;
import io.dapr.client.domain.UnlockResponseStatus;
import reactor.core.publisher.Mono;

public class DistributedLockGrpcClient {
  private static final String LOCK_STORE_NAME = "lockstore";

  /**
   * Executes various methods to check the different apis.
   *
   * @param args arguments
   * @throws Exception throws Exception
   */
  public static void main(String[] args) throws Exception {
    try (DaprPreviewClient client = (new DaprClientBuilder()).buildPreviewClient()) {
      System.out.println("Using preview client...");
      tryLock(client);
      unlock(client);
    }
  }

  /**
   * Trying to get lock.
   *
   * @param client DaprPreviewClient object
   */
  public static void tryLock(DaprPreviewClient client) {
    System.out.println("*******trying to get a free distributed lock********");
    try {
      LockRequest lockRequest = new LockRequest(LOCK_STORE_NAME, "resouce1", "owner1", 5);
      Mono<Boolean> result = client.tryLock(lockRequest);
      System.out.println("Lock result -> " + (Boolean.TRUE.equals(result.block()) ? "SUCCESS" : "FAIL"));
    } catch (Exception ex) {
      System.out.println(ex.getMessage());
    }
  }

  /**
   * Unlock a lock.
   *
   * @param client DaprPreviewClient object
   */
  public static void unlock(DaprPreviewClient client) {
    System.out.println("*******unlock a distributed lock********");
    try {
      UnlockRequest unlockRequest = new UnlockRequest(LOCK_STORE_NAME, "resouce1", "owner1");
      Mono<UnlockResponseStatus> result = client.unlock(unlockRequest);
      System.out.println("Unlock result ->" + result.block().name());
    } catch (Exception ex) {
      System.out.println(ex.getMessage());
    }
  }
}

Workflow

Dapr Workflow is currently in beta state.

package io.dapr.examples.workflows;

import io.dapr.workflows.client.DaprWorkflowClient;
import io.dapr.workflows.client.WorkflowInstanceStatus;

import java.time.Duration;
import java.util.concurrent.TimeUnit;
import java.util.concurrent.TimeoutException;

/**
 * For setup instructions, see the README.
 */
public class DemoWorkflowClient {

  /**
   * The main method.
   *
   * @param args Input arguments (unused).
   * @throws InterruptedException If program has been interrupted.
   */
  public static void main(String[] args) throws InterruptedException {
    DaprWorkflowClient client = new DaprWorkflowClient();

    try (client) {
      String separatorStr = "*******";
      System.out.println(separatorStr);
      String instanceId = client.scheduleNewWorkflow(DemoWorkflow.class, "input data");
      System.out.printf("Started new workflow instance with random ID: %s%n", instanceId);

      System.out.println(separatorStr);
      System.out.println("**GetInstanceMetadata:Running Workflow**");
      WorkflowInstanceStatus workflowMetadata = client.getInstanceState(instanceId, true);
      System.out.printf("Result: %s%n", workflowMetadata);

      System.out.println(separatorStr);
      System.out.println("**WaitForInstanceStart**");
      try {
        WorkflowInstanceStatus waitForInstanceStartResult =
            client.waitForInstanceStart(instanceId, Duration.ofSeconds(60), true);
        System.out.printf("Result: %s%n", waitForInstanceStartResult);
      } catch (TimeoutException ex) {
        System.out.printf("waitForInstanceStart has an exception:%s%n", ex);
      }

      System.out.println(separatorStr);
      System.out.println("**SendExternalMessage**");
      client.raiseEvent(instanceId, "TestEvent", "TestEventPayload");

      System.out.println(separatorStr);
      System.out.println("** Registering parallel Events to be captured by allOf(t1,t2,t3) **");
      client.raiseEvent(instanceId, "event1", "TestEvent 1 Payload");
      client.raiseEvent(instanceId, "event2", "TestEvent 2 Payload");
      client.raiseEvent(instanceId, "event3", "TestEvent 3 Payload");
      System.out.printf("Events raised for workflow with instanceId: %s\n", instanceId);

      System.out.println(separatorStr);
      System.out.println("** Registering Event to be captured by anyOf(t1,t2,t3) **");
      client.raiseEvent(instanceId, "e2", "event 2 Payload");
      System.out.printf("Event raised for workflow with instanceId: %s\n", instanceId);


      System.out.println(separatorStr);
      System.out.println("**WaitForInstanceCompletion**");
      try {
        WorkflowInstanceStatus waitForInstanceCompletionResult =
            client.waitForInstanceCompletion(instanceId, Duration.ofSeconds(60), true);
        System.out.printf("Result: %s%n", waitForInstanceCompletionResult);
      } catch (TimeoutException ex) {
        System.out.printf("waitForInstanceCompletion has an exception:%s%n", ex);
      }

      System.out.println(separatorStr);
      System.out.println("**purgeInstance**");
      boolean purgeResult = client.purgeInstance(instanceId);
      System.out.printf("purgeResult: %s%n", purgeResult);

      System.out.println(separatorStr);
      System.out.println("**raiseEvent**");

      String eventInstanceId = client.scheduleNewWorkflow(DemoWorkflow.class);
      System.out.printf("Started new workflow instance with random ID: %s%n", eventInstanceId);
      client.raiseEvent(eventInstanceId, "TestException", null);
      System.out.printf("Event raised for workflow with instanceId: %s\n", eventInstanceId);

      System.out.println(separatorStr);
      String instanceToTerminateId = "terminateMe";
      client.scheduleNewWorkflow(DemoWorkflow.class, null, instanceToTerminateId);
      System.out.printf("Started new workflow instance with specified ID: %s%n", instanceToTerminateId);

      TimeUnit.SECONDS.sleep(5);
      System.out.println("Terminate this workflow instance manually before the timeout is reached");
      client.terminateWorkflow(instanceToTerminateId, null);
      System.out.println(separatorStr);

      String restartingInstanceId = "restarting";
      client.scheduleNewWorkflow(DemoWorkflow.class, null, restartingInstanceId);
      System.out.printf("Started new  workflow instance with ID: %s%n", restartingInstanceId);
      System.out.println("Sleeping 30 seconds to restart the workflow");
      TimeUnit.SECONDS.sleep(30);

      System.out.println("**SendExternalMessage: RestartEvent**");
      client.raiseEvent(restartingInstanceId, "RestartEvent", "RestartEventPayload");

      System.out.println("Sleeping 30 seconds to terminate the eternal workflow");
      TimeUnit.SECONDS.sleep(30);
      client.terminateWorkflow(restartingInstanceId, null);
    }

    System.out.println("Exiting DemoWorkflowClient.");
    System.exit(0);
  }
}

Sidecar APIs

Wait for sidecar

The DaprClient also provides a helper method to wait for the sidecar to become healthy (components only). When using this method, be sure to specify a timeout in milliseconds and block() to wait for the result of a reactive operation.

// Wait for the Dapr sidecar to report healthy before attempting to use Dapr components.
try (DaprClient client = new DaprClientBuilder().build()) {
  System.out.println("Waiting for Dapr sidecar ...");
  client.waitForSidecar(10000).block(); // Specify the timeout in milliseconds
  System.out.println("Dapr sidecar is ready.");
  ...
}

// Perform Dapr component operations here i.e. fetching secrets or saving state.

Shutdown the sidecar

try (DaprClient client = new DaprClientBuilder().build()) {
  logger.info("Sending shutdown request.");
  client.shutdown().block();
  logger.info("Ensuring dapr has stopped.");
  ...
}

Learn more about the Dapr Java SDK packages available to add to your Java applications.